The U2 MOU (Under 2 Degrees C, Memo of Understanding

The Agreement in Paris at COP 21 and getting to 2 degrees C.

One of the criticisms of the Paris Agreement is that the goals do not get to under 2 degrees C or 3.6 degrees F. Instead they lead to about 3.6 degrees C which is 6.5 degrees F, well over the 2.0 degree F limit. Some other participants at Paris went even further to ensure getting to below 2 degrees C.. One such example is the Under 2 MOU signed by subnational parties (e.g. cities, counties, provinces, states) representing 720 million people and $19.9 Trillion in GDP or 1/4 of the world's economy.


Who signed the Under 2 MOU?

The agreement started with an agreement between California and Baden-Wurtenberg to limit to 2 degrees C or 2 metric tons per person (4400 pounds).  The list of signatories is here Note that while the State of California have signed it, as have the cities of Los Angeles, Oakland and San Francisco.. Some of the regional entities that have signed it include subnationals in Germany, Mexico, Spain, Germany, Japan, Sweden, Italy, Portugal, Brazil, France, Minnesota, New Hampshire, New York State, the Netherlands, Rhode Island, Australia, Peru, Vermont, United Kingdom and  Washington State

How does the contract help spur getting to Under 2 degrees?

There are intermediate goals for each area that will make it easier to understand. One of the most meaningful is the 2 Metric Tons of C02 per person. We can easily look at our lifestyle today and see how we fit into this goal.

Success examples have always spurred wider success. Before Roger Bannister broke the four minute mile it was viewed as impossible. Now the record is 3:45 seconds.

How does the Under 2 MOU address bringing on line new forms of energy?

The framework creates a mechanism for sharing idea that have the ability to address the issue. Different governments can try different experiments to see what works. The scientific process should look at the successes and the failures. We often learn from the failures on where the next successes will be. The number of participants in this show that there is the possibility for a number of different experiments that can be put forth to address issues.

The areas covered for sharing and development of methods to reduce GHG include:


Transportation and Transport

Natural Resource and Waste Reduction

Science and Technology

Communication and Public Participation

Short Lived Climate Pollutants (Methane and Black Carbon)

Inventory, Monitoring, Accounting Transparency

Adaptation and Resilience

Open Source type transparency

How does this influence Net Positive?

The goals of Net Positive were designed to be a source of inspiration for others. The idea is that we in Silicon Valley Bay Area have resources to meet challenges.  Two cities in the Bay Area have joined the Under2 MOU (Oakland and San Francisco. We need to help spread knowledge from their efforts.

The seals from Baden Wurttenburg and California are from their respective Wikipedia pages.

Coat of arms of Baden-W├╝rttemberg (lesser)". Licensed under Public Domain via Commons -

Seal of California" by Original uploader was Zscout370 at en.wikipedia - The base image came from [1] and is PD due to age.. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Commons -

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